This post is part of a series blog on Standardization, part II on job observation and Gemba walk and in particular, part I entitled What is Standardization and Digital Work Instructions?.
After seeing the importance of having work standards in all our activities, and the importance of practicing Job Observation by Managers of the company and/or the Workshop, we are talking now about the management of people’s competencies, their training, and their polyvalence, so we can get to the point where:
- We have robust standards that must be applied by all personnel with a digital work instructions tool.
- We keep the standards “alive” with the aid of Job Observation and improvement. See our blog What is Job Observation: Genchi Genbutsu and Gemba Walks.
- We implement the “3-stage training” of standards to all stakeholders using the “I do, we do, you do” technique.
- We define the operational requirements of each process/activity and the competency levels of each person.
- We prepare polyvalence plans in anticipation of the company’s needs, the Polyvalence Matrix.
The 3-Stage Training
From the Standardization management tools and in particular digital work instructions, it is essential to ensure the training of workers for all required activities.
It is of great responsibility to ensure such training, therefore, it is a fundamental task of the team leader (Team Leader or Group Leader).
According to specialists in cognitive psychology, we are able to understand and retain:
- 10% of what we read
- 20% of what we hear
- 30% of what we observe
- 50% of what we observe and hear
- 70% of what we say
- 90% of what we do
On-the-job training is an act of strong management, carried out by the hierarchy of the person being trained. To ensure maximum effectiveness of the training, the following ritual should be followed to ensure I do, We do, You do:
1.- Training Preparation:
- Make sure that the training meets a need identified in the Polyvalence Matrix and linked to the person’s current competencies
- The trainer (Team Leader) performs the operation himself (or with the support of a senior operator) to remember the operating method
- Verify that the standard (work instruction) is understandable and up-to-date
- Ensure that the quality requirements are in proper working order before moving on to the next position
- Check The station is in accordance with its reference state: available parts and tools, safety features, etc…
Note: it may be possible to prepare the training on a mock-up simulating a workstation.
2.- I DO
The Team Leader does the operation:
- Explain the operation to the person trained:
- Say which operation is to be executed
- Identify the person’s existing knowledge of the operation
- Explain the importance of the operation
- Ensure that the operator is well positioned to hear instructions
- Present the parts, tools, and machines to be used
- Show how to perform the operation:
- The Team Leader must carry out the operation himself (or with the support of a senior operator), scrupulously respecting the standard, highlighting the main steps, the key points, what is forbidden and why, and what to do in case of anomalies
3.- We DO
The Team Leader must make the operator do the operation, remaining at his side:
- Have the operator perform the operation, repeating the main steps, the key points, and the reasons for the key points in a loud voice
- Immediately correct any deviation from the standard operating mode
- Repeat until the operator has completely memorized the operation
4.- You DO
The Team Leader must let the operator go it alone, and ensure follow-up:
- Ask an experienced (senior) operator or the Team Leader to supervise the beginner operator
- Encourage the operator to ask any questions, and confirm that he/she knows who to contact for this purpose
- Leave the operator to do the operation alone
- Frequent monitoring
5.- End of Training:
- Organize the follow-up of the beginner operator by a senior operator to ensure that no error leaves the workstation
- Verify that the operator always respects the work standard, knows the key points and their reasons, keeping the target time of the operation
- The Team Leader must update the polyvalence matrix (ILUO) with the accreditation of the new operator
The operational requirements of each process
The need to ensure the activities in all workplaces requires us to establish a set of criteria, in which we can detail the operational requirements, for example:
- Process: Designation of the activity: Positioning parts on tooling
- Operation: Performed by the operator or by machine: Correct adjustment or positioning
- Standard working conditions: Positioned according to standard form (work instruction)
- Quality assurance features: correct functioning of the proximity sensors
- Level of difficulty of the operation: A, difficult operation, B, moderately difficult operation, C, easy operation
- Estimated learning time of the operation: 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, etc…
- Basic knowledge required: e.g. general electromechanics, FP1
- Technical skills acquired: skill level, knowledge of the machine, tooling, adjustments, etc…
The Polyvalence Matrix (ILUO): ask experts
Polyvalence is essential to guarantee Quality, Customer Service and to contribute to solving the impacts caused by absenteeism.
The Multipurpose Matrix (ILUO), allows the team leader to know, anticipate and plan for the development of your team’s competencies based on the needs of the processes:
The matrix, in addition to showing us the current state of the training of the entire team, serves as a training planner. It is a tool at the service of the team leader and managed by him. It allows him to formalize the level of competence of each operator on the standard of each position, according to 4 levels of maturity:
It should always appear:
- What operation?
- What level?
- Time frame, case of planning
Three levels of maturity of an operator in a job are defined: I, L, U and O:
- I: Is capable of executing the standard operation in the defined time, under normal conditions, and following the instructions
- L: It is capable of executing standard operations autonomously, including anomaly treatment
- U: Is capable of instructing others in the standard according to the 3-step training method, as well as proposing improvements
- O: Train the trainers
In addition, in the Matrix we will make appear:
- The incumbent of each position
- The planned date of training or change of level (planning mode)
EXAMPLE mlean matrix
H3 Simple and digital implementation of the Multipurpose Matrix (ILUO):
In our long experience, the implementation of the Matrix (usually in Excel), has serious management and updating difficulties. We understand that it is necessary to make life easier for team leaders (it is their responsibility), who are already burdened with administrative tasks.